I tested how Schemes deal with string->symbol when the string contains characters that can only appear in an escaped symbol. All Schemes in my test suite (except Rep, Schemik, and Oaklisp, which don't support string->symbol) return a symbol from (string->symbol "foo)(bar") rather than a syntax error.
An interesting difference was the way in which the resulting symbol was printed by the REPL.
Racket, Gauche, MIT, Gambit, Chicken, SISC, Chibi, STklos, Sagittarius printed the symbol name as |foo)(bar|.
Guile, Chez, Icarus/Vicare, Larceny, Ypsilon, KSi printed it as foo\x29;\x28;bar, R6RS-style.
SCM, Shoe, Elk printed it as foo\)\(bar.
Bigloo, Scheme48/scsh, Kawa, Mosh, IronScheme, NexJ, SigScheme, TinyScheme, Scheme 9, Dream, RScheme, S7, BDC, XLisp, UMB, VX, Owl Lisp displayed the symbol as foo)(bar (this is arguably a bug in Mosh and IronScheme, which are R6RS implementations).
Note that this list does not match the list of implementations which accept vertical bars, hex escapes, and backslashes.